Marijuana Does Not Affect Brain Volume Study Finds
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Marijuana Does Not Affect Brain Volume Study Finds
Posted by CN Staff on August 27, 2015 at 14:02:36 PT
By Alexandra Sifferlin
Source: Time
USA -- Using marijuana does not cause changes in brain volume, a new study suggests.Public health experts have cited concerns that using marijuana could be associated with structural changes in the brain. However, a new trial comparing the brains of marijuana users and non-users to their siblings reveals that marijuana use likely does not cause changes in brain volume.
In the study, published in the journal JAMA Psychiatry, researchers looked at a large group of siblings ages 22 to 35. Of the 483 people, 262 reported ever using marijuana, even just once. The researchers then split the men and women into groups: sibling pairs who had never used marijuana, sibling pairs where both had reported using marijuana, and sibling pairs where one had used marijuana and one had not. Overall, they noticed that people who reported using marijuana had smaller volumes in certain parts of the brain—like the left amygdala, which is involved in emotional processing. However, these differences still fell within a range of volume that is considered normal.The researchers hypothesized that in the sibling pairs where one had used marijuana and one had not, they would see differences in brain volume. But instead, they found that the exposed and unexposed siblings had the same amygdala volume. “We found no evidence for the causal influence of cannabis exposure on amygdala volume,” the authors concluded.The researchers suggest that differences in volume could be due to other factors, like genetics or living environment. “Our study suggests that cannabis use, or at least the simple index of it that we used, does not directly impact changes in brain volumes,” says study author Arpana Agrawal, an associate professor at Washington University School of Medicine. “Instead, any relationship that we did see between cannabis use and brain volumes was due to predisposing factors that influence both cannabis use and brain volumes.”The study did not find that brain volume has any effect on whether or not a person uses marijuana.Another study, also published by different authors in the same journal, found that using marijuana could alter the brains of males at high risk for schizophrenia in potentially meaningful ways.More research needs to be done to understand whether marijuana does or does not have potentially harmful effects on the brain, or whether the risks are different from one person to the next.Source: Time Magazine (US)Author: Alexandra Sifferlin Published: August 27, 2015Copyright: 2015 Time Inc.Contact: letters time.comWebsite: -- Cannabis Archives 
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Comment #23 posted by FoM on September 06, 2015 at 19:12:43 PT
Had Enough
Thank you. I wish it was closer because he shares all your concerns too.
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Comment #22 posted by Had Enough on September 06, 2015 at 12:37:48 PT
About 2 hrs from there...used to be about 1 hr...These days there are too many cars between here and there...Used to work on the condos along the beaches back in the day...
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Comment #21 posted by FoM on September 04, 2015 at 04:11:28 PT
Had Enough
Those images are so scary. The one safe place people feel is in their bedroom but not for that man in Florida. Do you live near Gulf Port?
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Comment #20 posted by Had Enough on September 03, 2015 at 15:10:15 PT
More Sinkhole Stuff
Look at the datesAugust 19, 2015Florida sinkhole reopens two years after it swallowed a sleeping man and killed him***March 1, 2013Massive sinkhole swallows Florida man — and it's still growing***More Images...some are near me...
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Comment #19 posted by Had Enough on September 03, 2015 at 14:56:10 PT
Florida...more stuff
Well Sam Adams and FoM...I don't think Florida will disappear in my lifetime... : ) but yes ...eventually Florida will have more and more water issues as the saltwater is creeping into the limestone aquifers...and as nature reclaims it's ways moving the water and sand around...can you belive at one time the Army Corps of Engineers were cutting a canal across the state..Many people are happy that they stopped this disaster waiting to happen...Cross Florida Barge Canal....
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Comment #18 posted by FoM on September 01, 2015 at 15:47:36 PT
Sam Adams
I agree with you. My nephew lives in Gulf Port and the water is getting closer to his house. Had Enough, I feel so bad for you knowing that it is only going to get worse as the sea rises and it sure is.
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Comment #17 posted by Oleg the Tumor on September 01, 2015 at 15:41:22 PT
Had Enough #14
Thank you for the link. I see that they showed about 1 or 2 sq. ft. of the hole in the picture, though the article said the hole was 6' X 4', which equals 24 sq. ft., but there's a lot we don't see in the news anymore, at least from media outlets that do what their owners tell them to do. Ignore. Minimize. Distance. Spin. Obfuscate. All action words now.
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Comment #16 posted by Sam Adams on September 01, 2015 at 11:55:28 PT
the prognosis for Florida is not good - I'm sure we've all seen the global warming maps - Florida is not visible on those maps! It will be water that brings its demise. It's already happening. As sea levels rise, the potable water supplies in FL will turn to brine one by one. It's well underway.They're also running out of sand from interior Florida to fill in the beaches every year. perhaps when the seas come rolling in there will be a pause to consider the hubris of futility of the war on drugsÉ...
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Comment #15 posted by Had Enough on August 31, 2015 at 17:22:52 PT
And now...
It has been raining here almost every day for a month...some places are flooded out...people have water in their living rooms...and now the remnants of Tropical Storm Erika is dumping more water...August 4... Flooding: Anclote River Continues To Rise; Gov. Rick Scott Tours Affected Areas***August 31.. of Erika Pose Flash Flood Threat For Florida and Southeast; Flood Watches in Effect
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Comment #14 posted by Had Enough on August 31, 2015 at 17:11:56 PT
More Water Damage...
More Water Damage...A sinkhole has closed a lane of southbound Interstate 75 in Pasco County, according to Florida Highway Patrol.Click to see...
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Comment #13 posted by Oleg the Tumor on August 31, 2015 at 17:11:02 PT
Hope & Had Enough
Thank you for the info. I agree that moving water around, is not something that we should take lightly or take on without receiving expert opinions on all sides. but we are quickly running out of options. At the zoo today we saw a sign that said "71% of everything is water".We, all of us, every single human being in the entire world is part of one massive hydrologic cycle. In other words, water is in constant motion from one stage to the next. You can't stop it from moving if you try. The problem is not in the motion, it's in the source. we need a major conservation measure, which is what this pipeline should be.In the example you cited, Had Enough, the source of the water was another aquifer. That's the problem. We can't keep pumping water out of the ground without caring how it got there in the first place.The source of the water that I am referring to comes from storm runoff and ice and snow that piles up on the streets of all the cities north of DC (in a typical year) check out what Philadelphia is like in a typical winter or in Buffalo, NY, or even in New York City. The fact is they are paying top dollar to treat ice and snow like trash. A potential asset is written off as a winter expense, and needlessly.I have heard of plans in the past to tap some water from the Great Lakes and I assure you that will not happen.In the old days, they used to say, "Whiskey is for drinking. Water is for fighting over!" Well, that fight is far from over. We are approaching a crisis. If we do not take an approach to the problem, our descendants will be blindsided by it.Anyway,the ballot language in Florida looks good.I wish we had that kind of choice here in Ohio this November.I suspect this Issue 3 is going to get messy.
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Comment #12 posted by Hope on August 31, 2015 at 12:42:08 PT
Comment 8 Had Enough
At least you'll have citizen initiatives... but good grief, the deck is certainly stacked against you all. Wickedly so.And doesn't having two available to sign on to make it more likely that both will fail?That's just wrong to have the deck so stacked against the people trying end a terrible injustice and to make a change for the better.
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Comment #11 posted by Hope on August 31, 2015 at 12:38:06 PT
I'm sorry to hear that, too, Had Enough. Yes, I read about several situations where that is happening. It does alter a lot of the natural scheme of things which can cause problems. People do need to conserve water. And what is flooding one month can be dry as concrete the next. Oversharing the water has sometimes left everyone in a mess and short of water. And man... when your water deteriorates... it's rough. Droughts are very scary. I saw desertification start happening around here a few years back. It was frightening. The grasses were drying up and dying and the wind was relentless and blowing the soil away. It was all very "Dust Bowl" looking for awhile there. It's eased up, but, no doubt, it will come around again some day. This area is covered in conservation lakes built in the last half century, but they were all so low and had been for several years it was a big worry. Most of the lakes filled back up this year. Not all of them, but most of them.Once upon a time, it was all about diverting water to desert like places, like in California which turned them into agricultural meccas. But that era may be over... for good reason. People may have to live and have agriculture in places with better water supplies and leave the desert to be the desert.
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Comment #10 posted by FoM on August 31, 2015 at 05:33:20 PT
Had Enough
I am sorry to read what they are doing with your water. That's terrible. 
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Comment #9 posted by Had Enough on August 30, 2015 at 15:37:26 PT
I don't think it is safe to remove large amounts of water from one geographical area...and move it to another...maybe smaller amounts very carefully observing damaging consequences...That sort of thing happened here...the county next door bought property in this county and made well fields to pump the water to save their over populated we have the same...too fast of growth so people can make more money...There was quite a political battle over that...But in the end the water was being pumped all over the place...water quality here dropped...tap water not like it used to be...sink holes open up and swallow houses...ruining property ...some of the lakes aren't as clear as they were 20-30 years ago...and the list goes on...This is the agency that regulates the water The Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD)...Its nickname is SWIFTMUD...reporters, politicians, everybody calls it that...kinda ironic...go figure...
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Comment #8 posted by Had Enough on August 30, 2015 at 15:05:48 PT
Problems to be overcome...again...
Problems to be overcome...again...this will be the second time aroundBiggest problem...need 683,149 valid signatures...that means about 1.5 million signatures need to be collected...the supervisor of Elections Office will disqualify any petition that has anything wrong with it at all...Next Problem...After the ballot measure has collected enough qualifying has to receive 60% from the voters that participate in the election...not 50%...Last Election...57 to 58% in favor...on another note...the governors only received about 42% to something like 45%...So again as we've seen in other states...more people were in favor of cannabis law reform...than the governors race themselves...
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Comment #7 posted by Hope on August 30, 2015 at 13:18:54 PT
You aren't alone in wanting a water pipeline to California and other places. William Shatner, for one, has tried very hard to get a campaign going for one. He thinks it should come from the Seattle area. It's being considered. Alaska and Washington also. Proposed interstate water pipelines to California Drought Solution: Interstate Water Pipeline
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Comment #6 posted by Hope on August 30, 2015 at 13:01:33 PT
Had Enough
They are going to diminish each other in the election, aren't they? If only everyone would get behind one. This is so good with a very serious drawback, isn't it? Or is it?
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Comment #5 posted by Had Enough on August 30, 2015 at 12:44:08 PT
Gonna do it again...
BALLOT TITLE: RIGHT OF ADULTS TO CANNABISBALLOT SUMMARY: This amendment guarantees the right of persons over twenty-one years of age to possess, use, and cultivate cannabis (commonly referred to as marijuana), reserving to the State the power to regulate its purchase and sale in the interest of health and safety. This amendment applies only to Florida law and state action, and does not immunize violations of federal law.ARTICLE AND SECTION BEING CREATED OR AMENDED: Article I, Section 28FULL TEXT OF THE PROPOSED CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT: All people in the State of Florida twenty-one years of age and older shall have the right under state laws to possession, use, and cultivation of cannabis. This right shall not be infringed except that the transfer of cannabis by purchase or sale may be regulated as necessary to ensure health and safety."Cannabis" in this section is defined as all parts of any plant of the genus Cannabis, whether growing or not, and the seeds thereof.The provisions of this section are severable and if any clause or sentence of this measure, or an application thereof, is adjudged invalid by a court of competent jurisdiction, other provisions shall continue to be in effect to the fullest extent possible.
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Comment #4 posted by Sam Adams on August 30, 2015 at 10:49:33 PT
yes Oleg, of course you're right, water is a HUGE issue in the American west, either we implement some new ideas or everyone leaves California & Vegas & Arizona over the next 50 years.Sad to see money still going into bogus cannabis research when we have several other urgent health care crisis....cancer and diabetes epidemics, 10-50 times the rate of other countries. 1 in 4 boys have neurological disorders from growing up with all the chemicals and crap in American air, water, medicine, and food supply.
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Comment #3 posted by Oleg the Tumor on August 30, 2015 at 06:39:44 PT
Brain Volume? 
It's interesting how they define brain volume. In 1998, when I had brain surgery, the doctors told me how the brain reacts to surgery. The way they described it, the brain expands in volume because it does not like being operated on. "Enraged" was the word the surgeon used. So it is no surprise at all, to me anyway, since cannabis is one of the most therapeutically safest substances known to man, to find that it does not enrage the brain. (Back in the late 1970s, when the epileptic seizures started, x-rays were taken. I called my mom and told her that they x-rayed my head and found nothing. She said, "I could've told them that and saved you the co-pay.") Cannabis is a friend of man, not an enemy. There are many of us who can testify that long-term use does not destroy brain function.By way of demonstration, I would like to present the following OT idea for discussion:THE CASE FOR INTERSTATE WATER PIPELINE(S)Purpose: to move water from where it is considered a nuisance to where it is desperately needed.Water has a unique place in the world. Nothing (with the possible exception of Congress) vexes us so much by going from indispensable to dangerous to useless and back again. Without water, human life is not possible. It comprises some 70% of the human body. Even so, water presents a unique conundrum: when there is not enough to sustain a civilization, it is called a drought. When there is too much, it is called a flood.  A "Flood" might be defined as when water "becomes a refugee with no place to go." Freezing temperatures bring ice and snow that must be removed from streets and sidewalks and dumped somewhere until it melts (to create mud in the spring) and until it does, it is no different from any other trash. Unstable snow masses create avalanches that kill many each year. Ice choked rivers causing spring floods is almost a proverb in many places.So, if you don't drown in it or slip and break your neck on the ice or get swept away in the avalanche, you could still die of thirst.Where the water can come from is much easier to say than where it should go.
Many northern US cities get a lot of snow and it surprises few to see it in very large piles, sometimes two to three stories high. These piles take up valuable parking spaces in large lots and on city streets, (which seem to get narrower as winter progresses). In cities where on-street parking is the only option, residents routinely stake out their claims with chairs and signage, sometimes leading to conflict. Neighbors don't battle one another over parking when there is no snow.As of August 2015, Buffalo, N.Y., still has snow from last winter, a massive pile dumped in an abandoned train yard. With a pipeline to carry off the snow and ice, city managers could use that land for some productive use and enjoy streets free of snow.Managers of wastewater treatment plants lose sleep at night when heavy rains threaten to wash raw sewage into streams and rivers.  An East-West pipeline to divert runoff before it gets to the treatment plant only makes sense.Alleviating the natural flooding seen this year, notably in Texas, would be another valuable use for a pipeline. So long as there is a place to put the water, potential flood victims have hope that a flood can be dealt with. Where floods can be expected to occur, a major shunt could divert massive amounts of water away from areas at risk A pipeline could also generate hydropower - for lighting, pumps, magnets (to remove debris), ultraviolet lights (to kill germs), heaters to melt ice and more.With reservoir levels dropping and farmers fighting over water rights, the actual end of the Colorado River (for example) disappears long before it ends on the map. Water is needed in the West now more than ever. Many other rivers have wildlife as distressed as the river itself. Particularly at risk is the central California Valley, whose famous aquifer is being drained like a punch bowl at an Irish wedding, causing subsidence to the land at an alarming rate. The fate of California is tied to this aquifer. Unless this condition is alleviated by water (from one source or another) the appearance of mammoth sinkholes is only a matter of time. These sinkholes could be miles (or even tens of miles) wide. This means that a huge territory of land might become declared uninhabitable with incalculable costs. All in an earthquake zone. A water pipeline could also assist firefighters in remote areas in a number of ways, from acting as a huge fire hydrant to controlled releases of water directly onto the landscape from a central location.Such a project should be able to gain wide support from (for example): Western states, anyone who grows or eats food, manufacturers, the city of Las Vegas (and everyone else out there watching Lake Mead recede) city managers, casino resort property owners and developers. In the East, expect support from anyone who wants to keep the streets free of ice and snow, including municipalities and other public agencies. Chambers of Commerce. Civic and fraternal organizations like Boy Scouts of America, Rotarians, Kiwanis, etc. Count snow removal contractors who must pay tipping fees to dump snow somewhere and wastewater treatment plant operators who need an option to dealing with excessive storm runoff as supporters.Everyone that I have spoken to about this, thinks that it makes much more sense to build a water pipeline to the West to benefit American farmers and American cities than it does to build a north-south pipeline for the sake of Canadian oil companies. It's time for us to think of water pipelines as a national recycling project and job creator.The urgency for action is self apparent, but only to those who look.So does this idea hold water?Your thoughts, please. 
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Comment #2 posted by Had Enough on August 28, 2015 at 12:27:51 PT
Update: Two Florida marijuana legalization measures approved for signature-gatheringTwo voter initiatives to legalize marijuana in Florida have been approved by the state’s Division of Elections, clearing the way for their sponsors to attempt the Herculean task of gathering 683,149 verifiable voter signatures apiece.A very straight-forward proposal backed by some of the state’s best-known cannabis activists, Parrish residents Bob and Cathy Jordan, would simply make marijuana legal.“The amendment guarantees the right of persons over twenty-one years of age to possess, use and cultivate cannabis (commonly referred to as marijuana),” the ballot summary states.Click to see...
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Comment #1 posted by The GCW on August 27, 2015 at 18:42:32 PT
Cannabis prohibitionists mo dangerous thancannabis
This another instance of a nice way to tell prohibitionists they are full of crap.
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