Bulk of Illicit Club Drug Concocted in Netherland

  Bulk of Illicit Club Drug Concocted in Netherland

Posted by FoM on July 15, 2001 at 12:44:04 PT
By Mitchell Maddux, Staff Writer 
Source: Bergen Record 

On the outskirts of this hamlet, a narrow dirt track cuts through pine forests and grain fields, meandering toward the Belgian border. But as farmers drive their tractors across the pastoral landscape, they sometimes find their paths blocked by piles of plastic drums dumped in the road, or they come across charred, abandoned panel vans. At times, they might even sniff what smells like licorice wafting in the wind. This is the unlikely heart of Ecstasy country.
Chances are good that an Ecstasy tablet taken at a party in North Jersey or at a New Jersey shore nightclub came from a clandestine lab within miles of this farming village, where chemists working in rustic barns transform drums of chemicals into one of America's fastest-growing illicit drugs."Two years ago, I didn't ever hear of this stuff," said Bergen County Assistant Prosecutor Kenneth Ralph, who heads the county's narcotics task force. "Now it's everywhere."Dubbed the "love drug" or "hug drug," Ecstasy removes inhibitions and makes it easier for users to connect with others. Taking the drug -- or "rolling" -- heightens sensations: Lights become brighter, the slightest touch feels tremendous, and music rhythms are intensified. It also supplies seemingly endless energy.This summer, federal drug officials say, more than 750,000 Ecstasy tablets are being consumed each week in the region from the New York-North Jersey metropolitan area to the shore. And the vast majority of those tablets come from southeastern Holland.An affluent nation renowned for its tulip fields and picturesque canals, Holland has been accused by the U.S. government of being the "principal source country" of Ecstasy worldwide."The Netherlands is to Ecstasy as Colombia is to cocaine," John C. Varrone, who heads the investigative arm of the U.S. Customs Service, recently told a congressional panel.About 80 percent of the Ecstasy that makes its way into the United States is produced in the Netherlands, U.S. law enforcement officials say.As a result, State Department officials are discussing placing the Netherlands on the government's "decertification" list, which identifies nations it considers "major" drug-producing or transit countries that have not met the objectives of a United Nations anti-narcotics treaty, or have not taken sufficient action to stop the problem, a department official said.With only Afghanistan and Burma currently listed, even the threat of being placed on the pariah rolls brings tremendous embarrassment to a European nation such as the Netherlands. It could even exacerbate the colossal law enforcement and public relations nightmares the Dutch government already faces.In 1998, Dutch officials formed a national police unit devoted to tracking the Ecstasy trade. They also passed stronger drug-trafficking laws. Ecstasy seizures in the Netherlands jumped dramatically as a result: In one year, they more than tripled, climbing from 1.16 million tablets seized in 1998 to 3.66 million in 1999."We have increased significantly the resources dedicated to fight Ecstasy," said Han Peters, a Dutch Embassy official in Washington.But U.S. authorities say more Ecstasy is flooding into the United States than ever before.Customs inspectors seized 660,000 Ecstasy tablets smuggled into Newark International Airport in the fiscal year that ended in September 2000. By this Sept. 30, they expect to have broken the 1 million mark. A crossroads for smugglers Why the Netherlands became the world's leading Ecstasy producer is a mixture of history and circumstance -- including the country's long-existing drug underworld, its culture and social policies, domestic political considerations, and restrictions in Dutch criminal law."In the United States, everything is black and white," said a Dutch Foreign Ministry official, who requested anonymity. "In the Netherlands, everything is gray. We always compromise in the Netherlands. The Dutch are always pragmatic."Smuggling has long thrived in Holland's North Brabant region. For more than 100 years, black marketeers smuggled goods from adjacent Belgium and circumvented Holland's high taxes.Historically, North Brabant was long considered unimportant and remote, with few links to the Dutch interior. Local folklore is rife with tales of highwaymen who operated with impunity in the dark forests.The soil is fertile, making agriculture the region's economic mainstay. It remains one of the least populated areas, honeycombed with thickly wooded back-road connections that cross the virtually unpatrolled Belgian border.In the 19th century, a bootleg liquor industry flourished deep in the forests. Toward the end of World War II, black market traders smuggled food and consumer goods from liberated areas of Belgium to the Dutch north, still occupied by the Nazis.Smuggling continued until five years ago, when formation of a unified European Union eliminated most border controls and tariffs among member nations. Today, the two-lane roads running across the Belgian border have no checkpoints. Traffic passes unfettered in both directions.Chemistry also has deep roots in the region. In the Industrial Revolution, Tilburg, a textile center of 200,000 eight miles north of Esbeek, became known for its fabric dyes.The Dutch textile industry collapsed in the early 1960s, battered by competition from southern Europe and the developing world. Soon after, clandestine drug laboratories sprouted, specializing in the production of LSD and methamphetamine.Now the North Brabant labs make Ecstasy. The distinctive odor of root beer or licorice the process gives off, which would be obvious in more densely populated areas, poses little problem among the woods and isolated farms.When a batch is finished, barrels are discarded in the countryside, and stolen vans used to transport them are burned to destroy evidence. Then couriers laden with tiny tablets board airliners bound for the United States.Most of the labs are believed to be run by Dutch organized-crime groups, but the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration says much of the trafficking is controlled by Israeli crime syndicates. Also reportedly involved are Russian, Yugoslav, Dominican, and Dutch drug groups.In 1998 and 1999, the Dutch police Synthetic Drug Unit found 71 drug-making labs -- in barns, shacks, houses, and even the backs of vans -- many of them near Esbeek, a town of no more than 300 people. The place doesn't even appear on most maps.Yet most of the "discoveries" came only when something went wrong: Some of the labs were already abandoned when they were found, and a number exploded, sometimes killing people inside. In 1999 alone, authorities say, 16 labs blew up. Marco recalls the boom days When Ecstasy emerged at "rave" house parties in the Netherlands 10 years ago, many of the early traffickers were what DEA agents call "freelancers." One of them was a 20-year-old university undergraduate named Marco.Sitting in a restaurant in the central Dutch city of Utrecht, an hour north of Esbeek, Marco recounted Ecstasy's boom days in an interview with The Record. He asked that his last name be withheld.At the time, Marco said, he organized large, all-night raves in warehouses. Ecstasy use was integral."Everybody was using it at this party, and everybody liked each other -- everybody was walking around with a smile," Marco said of his first Ecstasy experience. "So the party was really very loving."French and British guests at Marco's raves in the Netherlands wanted their own supplies, so Marco bought tablets from a contact in Amsterdam and paid acquaintances to serve as couriers.To prepare the shipments, he said, he cut drinking straws into sections about an inch long and stacked eight to 10 Ecstasy pills in each. He sheathed the straw sections with plastic wrap, melted the plastic around the ends, and coated the containers with beeswax. He dubbed the creations "caramels." Couriers then dipped the straw sections in yogurt and swallowed them.On average, they ingested 120 tubes -- about 1,000 to 1,200 Ecstasy pills, Marco said. They then traveled by car or train across Europe, or by air to more distant destinations. Marco said he sent one courier to the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe with 5,000 pills, and another to Australia with 2,500 tablets."The biggest one we did was 10,000 pills to France," he said. "A friend of mine did 10,000 in a teddy bear. I never did any to the U.S.A., because I didn't have any contacts there."Marco said he earned about $2,000 a month from his part-time smuggling business, which helped finance a lifestyle far more lavish than that of the average student. Despite opportunities to boost those profits, he abided by an unbreakable rule: "I would never cross the border."That was based on the perception that authorities outside the Netherlands pursue drug dealers far more aggressively than do the Dutch authorities. This perception also helps explain why so many Ecstasy laboratories are set up in Holland.Indeed, Marco's experience symbolizes what some U.S. and European law enforcement officials say is wrong with Dutch drug policy.A public health approach to drugsThe Netherlands has a long, liberal tradition of personal freedom. Its social mores on drug use and legalized prostitution, for example, are extremely permissive by American standards. Overall, illegal drug use is considered a public health problem, not a crime."Soft" drugs such as marijuana are technically illegal, but people who possess amounts under five grams are not prosecuted. In 105 of Holland's 538 municipalities, specially licensed cafes sell marijuana along with coffee and cake, while officials look the other way.Ecstasy is considered an illegal "hard" drug in the Netherlands. But, as with marijuana, those caught with small amounts for personal use aren't prosecuted. Instead, the Dutch Health Ministry parks official vans in front of nightclubs and raves, offering free tests of Ecstasy pills to guard against overdoses."The Dutch drug politics is mostly health politics, and users are approached more as patients who are sick and need to be helped instead of criminals who need to be put in jail," said Martin Witteveen, chief national public prosecutor for southeastern Holland.All of these factors influence the Dutch Parliament, which has opposed drug-fighting methods it considers too draconian.As a result, some law enforcement officials on both sides of the Atlantic have privately accused the Dutch government of being soft on Ecstasy. They criticize Dutch laws that virtually ban plea agreements and ignore low-level street dealers and small-time smugglers such as Marco.U.S. authorities arrest and prosecute street dealers, some of whom accept plea deals and cooperate in exchange for shorter prison terms. "Squeezing" such smaller players for information about higher-ups is a key tool.In the Netherlands, plea bargains are extremely rare and "highly controversial," said Witteveen, who last year was the first prosecutor in the nation to have a plea deal approved by the Dutch Supreme Court.Objections focus on the ethical quandaries plea agreements raise -- that criminals should not be offered deals or receive reduced sentences.With no prospect to reduce their time behind bars, lower-level drug operatives in Holland have no incentive to cooperate with authorities, said several U.S. law enforcement officials."In the United States, often our investigation starts at the time of arrest," a federal law enforcement official said privately. "Theirs [Dutch investigations] end at the time of arrest."Witteveen and several other Dutch officials said they had too few people to fight low-level drug dealing as aggressively as they wanted. They also said the government has made a strategic decision to concentrate on major traffickers and producers.But even when they pursue high-level dealers, other aspects of Dutch law apparently get in the way. For instance, laws severely restrict the use of undercover detectives, and this curtails most infiltration of criminal groups.Such limitations are based on a historical distaste for "agent provocateur" activities, Witteveen said. There are also philosophical disagreements in the Netherlands about the ethics of allowing the police to break the law to enforce it. And there is a fear that overall police integrity could be corrupted by close contact with criminals."Basically, we believe it is a very serious matter for a police officer to pretend to be a buyer or deliverer," Witteveen said.As a result, the Dutch almost never use such standard U.S. drug enforcement techniques as "buy-and-bust," in which officers pose as drug buyers and arrest the dealer when the transaction is complete, or "controlled deliveries," in which undercover officers intercept a mailed drug shipment, deliver it, and arrest the recipient.Western undercover officers tipped off to overseas connections have sought to pose as potential Ecstasy buyers in the Netherlands. But that requires permission from the Ministry of Justice and more than half a dozen national agencies and local officials. In a situation that demands swift interaction between buyer and seller, the multiagency Dutch approval process sometimes takes up to six months, U.S. authorities complain.Dutch officials say they are confident they are taking the right tack. The United States' hard-nosed approach would run afoul of Parliament, some say, because it is out of step with the Netherlands' collective mentality."I don't think the Dutch people like to be known as the world's largest Ecstasy producer -- that's not something we're proud of," said Madelien de Planque, a Dutch Embassy official in Washington. "But what works for the Netherlands would probably not work for the United States. For us, it works."What it may lead to, however, is another question.The normally bucolic southern Dutch countryside has seen an increase in violence the last four years amid trade wars between traffickers. In the woods near Esbeek, gunmen executed four people in a country house. In Tilburg, three people were killed when a man on a motorcycle fired a submachine gun into their home. Dutch authorities believe these and other recent slayings were Ecstasy-related assassinations."In the last few years, we've had dozens of killings, mostly in the south," Witteveen said.Organized crime, already identified as a player in the Dutch drug trade, is a looming threat for "deep penetration" into the Netherlands, warned Varrone of the U.S. Customs Service.He challenged the Dutch to do more."Do you want to put yourself at risk for the corrupting power of money?" Varrone asked.A Dutch detective has some successThe nerve center of the Dutch Ecstasy counteroffensive lies 30 miles east of Esbeek in an industrial area of Eindhoven. Inside an undistinguished concrete building that once housed offices for a natural gas utility, Peter Reijnders talks about the synthetic chemical concoction that has come to dominate his professional life."Ecstasy in the Netherlands is a hard drug, as is cocaine and heroin," said Reijnders, a police officer who has been appointed the Netherlands' first Ecstasy czar. "It is not as harmless as everybody thinks it is."Affable and polished, Reijnders, 41, travels frequently to assure others that the Dutch are serious about fighting Ecstasy. A day earlier, he was in Paris meeting with police. The week before, he was at an Ecstasy conference in Stockholm, Sweden."This is a form of organized crime, and organized crime is always hard to fight," he said. "And it is hard to dismantle these types of organizations."Reijnders heads the Synthetic Drug Unit of the Dutch police, a team of 50 agents from the national police, customs, domestic intelligence, and other agencies. Earlier in the day, he was in the Hague, meeting with government ministers to request additional funding and 30 percent more manpower.The drug unit goes after the major producers and traffickers, but employs a global strategy of looking at "the whole chain of activities" involved in the production and distribution of Ecstasy, Reijnders said. That includes the importation of chemicals and machines that make the tablets, their production in secret labs, and their export overseas.Ecstasy is made by mixing several government-controlled "precursor" chemicals in pressure chambers with solvents and acids. The days-long process produces an average of 20 to 30 kilograms of Ecstasy a day. Some of the larger labs pump out up to 100 kilograms a day.The drug is generally made from a precursor chemical called piper methyl ketone or refined from sassafras oil. It is then reacted with methylamine. A liquid product called Ecstasy "oil" is produced, which is then dried with solvents into a powder. The powder is combined with a binding agent and formed into Ecstasy tablets. Metal stamps are then used to imprint designs on each tablet, often of cartoon characters or popular product logos.Among the countries making the chemicals are Poland, Romania, Vietnam, and China, where government controls are more lax and the possibility of finding corrupt officials is greater than in the West, U.S. and European law enforcement authorities said.The controlled chemicals are commonly smuggled into the Netherlands either by ship to Rotterdam, the busiest port in Europe and a 40-mile drive from southeastern Holland, or overland by truck in barrels hidden among legitimate cargo. This takes advantage of virtually nonexistent frontier checks in the 15 European Union countries, from Greece to Britain."When it enters the Union, we generally have no more border controls," Reijnders said. "It's very difficult."Ecstasy makers generally spread their risks -- and make police work tougher -- by splitting the phases of production: basic chemistry at one location, tablet production at another, packaging and distribution at a third, said Marianne Van Ewijck, a member of the Synthetic Drug Unit.But in a major coup last fall, Dutch police at the Belgian border seized a Portuguese truck hauling nearly 2,200 gallons of the piper methyl ketone -- enough to make 112 million Ecstasy tablets -- that had been offloaded in Lisbon from a ship from China.In addition to drug counts, the Dutch police now charge Ecstasy producers with environmental crimes -- for dumping chemical wastes -- or criminal copyright violations, for stamping the tablets with familiar symbols such as the Mercedes-Benz logo or cartoon characters, including Mickey Mouse and Woody Woodpecker.The drug unit also looks for drug proceeds and money laundering, and then tries to seize property and cash. Again, however, Dutch law makes seizures more difficult to obtain than they are in the United States.Despite such obstacles, Reijnders' team earns praise from European and U.S. law enforcement, including agents at the DEA's office at The Hague."The Synthetic Drug Unit is doing an exceedingly good job," said Mike Stephenson, chief intelligence officer at Interpol's drug section in Lyon, France. "They've recognized they've got a problem on their doorstep, and they're dealing with it."One way to gauge the effectiveness of Reijnders' team is to look at the rising number of Ecstasy shipments that European and U.S. authorities intercept, Stephenson said. Many of the tips leading to those seizures "are coming from Dutch intelligence," he said.Still, the U.S. government remains concerned about the rapidly rising numbers of Ecstasy seizures on American soil.In April, State Department officials met with a Dutch delegation that included Reijnders, senior members of the foreign, justice, and health ministries, and the nation's top prosecutor and police officials.Afterward, the Netherlands said it would assign a Justice Ministry official and two police intelligence officers to its embassy in Washington to help coordinate Ecstasy investigations and other efforts with their American counterparts.Three weeks after the meeting, the Dutch government outlined a plan to spend $80 million to attack Ecstasy production within its borders.Dutch customs will get new X-ray scanners to screen outbound travelers at Amsterdam's Schiphol airport and export cargo in Rotterdam. And the government says it plans to increase public education about Ecstasy's risks through schools, television, and advertising."We are intensifying our efforts," Peters said. "We are taking the production and trade of Ecstasy very seriously. We are putting our money where our mouth is."Complete Title: Bulk of Illicit Club Drug Concocted in Rural Netherlands Labs Source: Bergen Record (NJ)Author: Mitchell Maddux, Staff WriterPublished: Sunday, July 15, 2001Copyright: 2001 Bergen Record Corp.Website: letterstotheeditor northjersey.comRelated Articles:Pragmatic Dutch Tolerate Ecstasy Use The Dutch, Ecstasy Just The Latest Fad - Ecstasy

Home    Comment    Email    Register    Recent Comments    Help

Comment #12 posted by Avenger on July 16, 2001 at 08:45:34 PT:
Where is the Danger?
the Danger ...... the Danger ..... the Danger .....What is the danger, exactly?this article makes constant mention of the "problem" of Ecstacy, yet fails to mention any physical danger to anyone beyond the obvious danger of getting caught up in the drug war in all it's hate-filled persecutions.So Ecstacy causes you to like to be liked, like to be touched, like to touch, like to dance and perhaps like to be close.Is there a problem here? It must be that old Puritan "ethic" that hates to see anyone have a good time doing anything other than praising God.Must we praise God by locking up more and more people every year for doing nothing more than enjoying life?Listen up all you moralizers ... if God hates any who harm others what do you think he will do to all of you who think it is OK to lock people up for non-violent "crimes?"Here's hoping you all go straight to Hell .......
[ Post Comment ]

Comment #11 posted by Greg on July 16, 2001 at 03:49:06 PT:
The U.S. Government is a bunch of fucking retards
Okay, I`m completely pissed off after reading this country. It makes me realize that we have a government filled with fullbrights, rhodes scholars, ivy league grads, PHD`s, and so called brilliant people. Truthfully, they are all fucking retarded. They have no common sense. If I were to deal with the drug problem I would legalize weed, dicriminalize all drugs, and make the drinking age 16 and the driving age 18. Lets stop patronizing our kids and teach them to responsible for christ sake. Yeah, the drug war has really succeeded. Hey America, the reason why more extacy comes into this country is because demand keeps rising. So lets blame holland because our country is riddled with druggies who are attracted to drugs in the first place because everyone tells them not to do them. It`s a principle they teach in basic economics class called supply and demand. The only thing the government`s efforts are doing is driving prices up, but as we all see, that`s not doing shit. Jesus, you`d think that people like George W. Bush might know something that I learned in Freshman Econ, oh wait he was too busy blowing coke and learning how to be a hypocrite. 
[ Post Comment ]


Comment #9 posted by Rambler on July 15, 2001 at 20:24:36 PT

Yes,they are white, but they are also pretty white in British Columbia,and the dea is opening up shop there.
[ Post Comment ]


Comment #8 posted by Doug on July 15, 2001 at 20:13:49 PT

Coming Soon to A Theater of War Near You
Plan Netherlands! For only 2 billion of your dollars, we will send aid into Holland to help them stop the Ecstasy Menace. We'll have to station troops at every coffee house and occupy Dam Square. We'll teach the Dutch how to lie, cheat and steal in order to put people away for a very long time.Netherlands has one advantage that will prevernt this from happening -- they're white.
[ Post Comment ]


Comment #7 posted by lookinside on July 15, 2001 at 20:10:22 PT:

i've said it before...there is nothing as dangerous as ananimal that feels mortally threatened...the DEA isthreatened, and it will slash and bite until it is dead...weare pricking knows it is injured, but it still hasmost of it's strength...keep fighting folks...
[ Post Comment ]


Comment #6 posted by dddd on July 15, 2001 at 20:01:57 PT

The Master Plan
....They've been setting this all up for years....first,,the heavymedia campaign specificly demonizing these "club","rave",or"date rape"drugs.,,,,,,,next step,,throw out more propaganda,suggesting these new evil drugs are from a certain place,,,andwhat better place than Holland....This gives the perfect excuseto point at Dutch Marijuana laws as the cause,,and this will beused to feed more lies into the Amerikan government media monopolynetwork,,,and they will say,,;;...."you see what happens when Marijuana is legalized?,,why if Marijuana was legal in the US,every body will be making their own extacy."...there's far more to all the "news",than meets the eye,,,especiallywhen you consider the anti cartels mastering of the media.....Theamerikan antis are no slouches,,they will preserve the WoDs inany way possible,and continue to expand it much thingya know,,the DEA will have a big new facility in Amsterdam,and throughoutEurope........dddd
[ Post Comment ]


Comment #5 posted by FoM on July 15, 2001 at 19:22:26 PT

Hi Doug,I haven't seen it in any other papers just the Bergen Record and I thought it was strange to be in that particular paper too. I'll keep my eyes open for it to appear in another paper.
[ Post Comment ]


Comment #4 posted by Doug on July 15, 2001 at 18:43:56 PT

Bergen Record??
I find it curious that a major article on Ecstasy production in tne Netherlands appeared in the Bergen Record. Was this article picked up from another source, like the New York Times? Could this perhaps be a plant; we know that parts of the DEA whould like the Dutch to go away, or at least follow the drug control policies of a "civilized" county. Perhaps this is our attempt to shame the Dutch, much as we have tried to reform the Canadian cannabis policies, with some luck.
[ Post Comment ]


Comment #3 posted by kaptinemo on July 15, 2001 at 17:39:13 PT:

Uh, EXCUSE ME? Mr. Varrone?
"Organized crime, already identified as a player in the Dutch drug trade, is a looming threat for "deep penetration" into the Netherlands, warned Varrone of the U.S. Customs Service.He challenged the Dutch to do more."Do you want to put yourself at risk for the corrupting power of money?" Varrone asked.Oh, man. That was truly a Freudian slip. He must be unconsciously thinking of the LA Rampart Scandal, where the police corruption was directly related to the DrugWar.It never ceases to amaze me: a nation that has had absolutely no effect at all on it's control of the illicit drug trade due to its' Draconian policies has the brass cojones to tell one that has had success how to do things.A nation where massive and almost endemic police corruption due to contact with the drug trade is going to tell a nation whose police are among the best on this planet that they have to 'straighten up and fly right'?The ever practical and sensible Dutch will, as they always have, come up with a much more feasible solution to the matter of E than the US...where given the chance the police would happily engage in mass executions to solve the 'drug problem'.One last thing: the Dutch culture has been shaped by having the jackboot of fascism applied to their throats, and are understandably leery of anything that smacks of it. They'd rather err on the side of (as I overheard one US pol say) 'too much freedom' than not enough. But there's always some pol or reporter who sneeringly dismisses the Dutch policies as being (derisive sniff) 'permissive'.Get something straight: it's the Dutch people who control the Dutch government, not the other way around. It is they who 'permit' the government to function at all. Government is kept on a tight leash, preventing it from sticking its' nose in their business...or killing their children in botched drug raids on wrong houses, a la Alberto Sepulveda. Try that kind of stunt there, and the government would fall, and rightfully so. Ministers who'd try, as Congressmen Gilmore and that CIA bagman Goss have, to dismiss innocent casualties of the DrugWar like Vicki and Charity Bowers, as being acceptable collateral damage, would receive so much negative press, they'd be literally hounded from office.They have what we are supposed to: an accountable government that bloody well listens to its' people...or else.The pols over here have gotten so used to not being held accountable for the murders of innocents, they think it's natural. And they act accordingly. This kind of unconscious hubris shows up in the remarks of our so-called "public servants" like Mr. Varrone. And spells out why reform is so important. Because, next time when the police make another "Ooops! Wrong House!" killing, it might be your family who's 'acceptable collateral damage'.
[ Post Comment ]


Comment #2 posted by shah on July 15, 2001 at 15:14:32 PT

Keep it to yourself
American gov should stay on their own soil and stop going into countries and FORCing their rules on other countries people. This drug war is a perfect example of how amer gov likes to trample on people. The more pressure amer gov puts on drugs, the harder, deadlier reaction by drug dealers and the trade goes. Its as simple as that. Every action has an opposite and equal reaction. WAKE UP AMERICANS
[ Post Comment ]


Comment #1 posted by smileysmiles on July 15, 2001 at 13:02:49 PT

"Ecstasy removes inhibitions and makes it easier for users to connect with others. Taking the drug -- or "rolling" -- heightens sensations: Lights become brighter, the slightest touch feels tremendous, and music rhythms are intensified. It also supplies seemingly endless energy.":)
[ Post Comment ]

  Post Comment